Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is the explicit name given to the range of pelvic infections and inflammations.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease at work.

It refers to infections that ascends the female upper genital area (the female structures above the cervix). Besides AIDS, PID is the most common with serious complications of STD among women.

PID makes about 14.5 million women visit the outpatient, healthcare providers and hospitals. Sadly, one fourth of these women suffer serious long term consequences of PID.

And as such the physical and social cost of PID is very high. It is important to understand that the rise of ectopic pregnancies increases sixfold after a single bout of PID. There is an estimated 13% risk of infertility after one infection and a 70% risk after 3 infections. As a result of these reasons above including the cost, prevention and aggressive full care of the condition is very important.

Signs and Symptoms Of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.

The most common sign and symptoms of PID are

  1. Fever
  2. Foul Smelling vagina discharge
  3. Extreme lower abdominal pain which includes pains during sex.
  4. Vaginal bleeding.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease scar the Fallopian tubes, ovaries, related structures and organs above the cervix leading to ectopic pregnancies, infertility, chronic pelvic pain and other serious complications.

Causes Of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.

Many organisms can be responsible for PID but the most common causes are Gonorrhea and Chlamydia infections. I will attempt to discuss in this article a few common causes of PID and how pathogens ascend the female upper genital area.

Neisseria Gonorrhoeae the bacterium that causes Gonorrhea.

1. Gonorrhea – Gonococcus (Neisseria Gonorrhea) is the bacterium that causes gonorrhea. The most common method of spread is when Gonococcus attached to spermatozoa is transported to the Fallopian tubes in less than 1 hr after sexual intercourse. Gonococcus can establish itself in the urethral mucosa where it resists the flow of urine.

Sites of interest for habitation in the lower female tract are the Bartholin and Skene’s glands, the urethra and endocervical canal.

Once Gonococcus gets to the Fallopian tubes it causes sloughing (casting off) of some cells and invades others while multiplication within and beneath the cells continues to take place. The infection will now spread to other organs resulting in more inflammation and scarring.

But here is an interesting angle of the spread of Gonococcus,  during ovulation and menses, the spread is less effective because the cervical mucus plug helps to prevent the spread of micro organisms to the upper genital tract.

However, if menstrual blood loaded with pathogenic microorganisms flows backwards from the uterus into the Fallopian tubes, the Gonococcus gain access. This is why symptoms of PID caused by Gonococcus often starts immediately after menses.


2. Chlamydia

About 30% of PID cases are caused by Chlamydia Trachomatis. Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by the infection called Chlamydia .T.

Chlamydia .T. can cause cervitis in women and Urethritis and Proctitis in men and women.

Chlamydia .T. is transmitted via sexual activity of the penis, vagina, mouth or anus of an infected person. The bad side is that Chlamydia .T. does not require ejaculation for its transmission unlike Gonococcus that can be transmitted through the sperm.

Chlamydia is a silent infection because most infected people do not have symptoms. In women, the bacteria infects the cervix where the may cause cervititis. This is accompanied by mucopurulent endocervical discharge of thick or yellow pus or induced endocervical bleeding.

The bacteria goes ahead and may attack the urethra which may result in urethritis. The infection now spreads to the female upper genital area (uterus, Fallopian tubes, ovaries, peritoneal surfaces and/or contiguous structures) thereby causing Pelvic Inflammatory Disease which may be with or without symptoms (sub clinical PID or acute PID).

Escherichia Coli (E.coli) a common bacterium that causes PID

3. Other Organisms

Other organisms may be responsible for PID in one way or the other. Such organisms are Ureaplasma Urelyticum, Mycloplasma hominis, Streptococcus species, Escherichia Coli, Haemophilus influenza, Peptostreptococcus and Peptococccus.



Risk Factors

Women that are sexually active and with STD are at greater risk of developing PID.

An earlier episode of PID increases the risk because the body’s defense is badly shaken and may be damaged from the initial attack of the upper genital tract infection.

Sexually active teenagers are more prone to PID than older women.

The more sexual partners the more the risk of PID.

Douches can also increase the risk of PID as douching may push the micro organisms to the upper genital tract, though easing the discharge and masking the discharge.

Other risk factors are caused by diagnosis or treatment. This happens when invasive procedures have introduced pathogens or somehow disrupted the tract flora and introduced PID. These procedures are;

  1. Cervical dilation
  2. Abortion
  3. curettage
  4. Tubal Insufflation
  5. Hysterosalpingography
  6. Insertion of an IUD


Ectopic Pregnancy is one of the complications of PID


The truth is that there are severe physical consequences for women who have PID or have had a previous episode of PID. According to research, it has been estimated that in the post infection state, one in four women will suffer from one  or more abdominal conditions resulting from a previous bout such as abdominal pain, infertility or ectopic pregnancy.

The most common consequence of PID is infertility. Once a woman has PID she is prone to further attacks. After the Fallopian tubes have been damaged as a result of the infection the natural defense mechanism are impaired.

However, reinfection is the most common cause of infertility.

Ectopic pregnancy is a serious abdominal condition resulting from a previous bout of PID that partially blocks the damaged tubes. It is not a palatable experience as million of women loose one or both tubes to ectopic pregnancies. It therefore shows that 1 in 20 women with PID will have an ectopic pregnancy.

Tubo ovarian abscesses (TOA) is another complication of PID. TOA can be life threatening if the abscess ruptures and results in sepsis. TOA is a confined pockets of pus with defined boundaries that forms during an infection of a Fallopian tube and ovary.

A rare complication of PID is the Fitz Hugh Cutis syndrome. This a violin stringed adhesion that joins the abdominal wall and the liver.


The most common and dependable symptom of PID is pelvic and lower abdominal pain. Even though it not precise. Cervical motion tenderness and adnexal tenderness are more common. PID symptoms can be experienced by some women while some others don’t experience symptoms at all.

Treatment for PID

There are various treatments available for the treatment of PID depending on the severity of the disease. Presently there are only a handful of these treatments that are working.

Let’s briefly explore the available treatments for PID.

Tetracycline a commonly used antibiotic in the treatment of PID

Antibiotics – This is the most common and available treatment for PID. However PID being a very complex syndrome with different and inconsistent symptoms and appearances in different women. A broad spectrum of antibiotic protocol which includes intravenous antibiotics can be employed to allow for flexibility on the part of the healthcare provider. It is worth of note that some antibiotics cover only the treatment of one organism.  Antibiotics may help in the first phase of treatment but may not offer sufficient solution  as it is more likely there will be a re occurrence if this type of treatment is relied on.


Natural Supplements and medicines.

The natural approach involved in treating PID is in two phases.

a. The first phase eliminates all pathogens and helps to normalize the micro flora of the adnexa.

b. The second repairs and restores damaged tissues.

Women are expected to avoid sexual intercourse until all signs and symptoms are resolved and their male partners have been examined and treated.

During the course of treatment bed rest must be increased.

The therapies described below are to be used with appropriate antibiotic treatment prescribed by your doctor

This is my area of specialty and I can tell what works naturally for PID. Here are a few of them.


Nutritional Therapies

Vitamin C – Vitamin C is very effective in the treatment of PID in women for the following reasons.

i. Vitamin C is anti inflammatory and therefore helps to decrease tissue depletion.

ii. It helps to support collagen tissue repair.

iii.Helps to prevent the spread of infection especially with Gonococcus infections.

iv. It helps to prevent pelvic scaring as a result of fibrinolytic activity.

Dosage – 500 mg four times daily for the first week of treatment and then decrease to 250mg three times daily.



2. Beta – Carotine -Pelvic Inflammatory disease among its activities is the bombardment of the pelvic organs which includes the ovaries.

The ovary is an organ that has high concentration of Beta Carotein. As the ovary is bombarded by inflammation and aggressive microbes, it is important to maintain the optimal level of of caroteins for optimal ovarian defense. Beta Carotein is very beneficial as it enhances immune functions such as antibody levels and white blood cells activity. As an antioxidant, it helps to limit cell damage induced by the inflammatory process.

Dosage -100,000 iu/day for 3 to 6 months.


3. Bromelain – An important component of the PID treatment protocol. Bromelain is enzyme extracted from pineapple juice and from the pineapple leaf and stem. The pineapple core is a part of pineapple loaded with this enzyme.

Pineapple good for implantation.

PID causes tissue irritations and these irritations produces a mass of cells and fluid that seeps out of the inflamed organs and begins to form adhesion. The more the fluid lingers the more the adhesion resulting in scarring and tubal occlusions.

But with Bromelain, fibrinolysis are triggered which helps to diminish the sequela of the inevitable fluid.

Bromelain can be found in excess in the pineapple core

Bromelain also helps by penetrating the salphinx to fight inflammations. Bromelain when taken systematically helps to speed up healing from inflammatory disease and conditions.

Dosage – 250 mg four times daily for the first week and then 250 mg three times a day for the next 12 weeks.

Natural Herbal Medicines

Several naturally occurring medicines have shown to have antimicrobial and immunostimulating effects. Allacin which is an extract from Garlic, Golden seal,Oregon grape root and echinacea must be considered at least as part of a PID treatment plan and can be used along with antibiotics.


1. Vaginal Herbal Tampons – The use of herbal tampons has historically been a part of traditional PID treatment plan. This is because it promotes the drainage of fluids that seeps out of infected organs that causes adhesion from the tissues involved. It also stimulates the immune cells within the vagina to provide a first line of defense






Gynapharm Capsules

2. Gynapharm – A 100% female herbal health solution for women with PID and inflammation of the appendages of the uterus. It has proved to be very effective in the treatment of PID. The number of packs to be use is solely dependent on the severity of the disease.

Dosage – 4 caps three times daily for 12 days for mild PID but duration of use will increase for chronic and severe PID.





3. Reishi – Reishi comes with a powerful solution for inflammations caused by PID. As an excellent immune booster, immunity is improved thereby making it difficult for the disease to thrive longer in the female upper genital track. It is usually more effective when used with Gynapharm.

Dosage – 3caps three times daily for the first 2 weeks and then 3 caps two times daily for a minimum of 9 weeks.




Physical Therapy

Sitz Bath another healing wonder for PID

Sitz Baths

This is one of the most powerful techniques in hydrotherapy that is used treat PID. By means of definition hydrotherapy is the use of water in any of its forms for the maintenance of  health and the treatment of diseases..

Sitz baths is a procedure that involves the partial immersion of the pelvic region in water.

Appropriate for PID is the Neutral Sitz bath.

Here is the procedure.

  1. Mix hot water with Epsom salt or table salt and chopped Garlic.
  2. Immerse the lower part of the pelvic area in the solution.
  3. Time frame of immersion is between 30 secs to 8 minutes.
  4. Thereafter sit in a cold water bath for between 30secs to 90 seconds.

The cold water bath increases  the tone smooth muscles of the uterus , bladder and the colon. It reduces the tendency to bleed from the uterus, lower bowel and the rectum.

As an alternative, cold application can be performed by dipping a towel into cold water and applying the cold towel to the groin. It helps to increase pelvic circulation and tone the muscles of the pelvic region. The effect created dramatically increases the blood flow within the pelvic region. It also helps to bring in the influx of macrophages and to decongest pelvic inflammatory reaction.

A combo of all the listed protocol will ensure that even chronic PID is treated completely. And that is exactly what the PID treatment Kit actually does.


STD prevention is very important for sexual active women. Women without PID should also take preventive measures as there are so many asymptomatic male carriers of STD moving around.

The following will also help as preventive measures against PID.

  1. Smoking should be avoided by sexually active women.
  2. Douching is highly discouraged
  3. Sanitary hygiene is a must if  infections are to be avoided.
  4. Use of Condoms as a barrier method is advised.
  5. Sexual intercourse must be avoided by all means during menses.



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